Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and the second most commonly diagnosed cancer (excluding skin cancer) among men and women in the United States. Although lung cancer can be caused by environmental exposures, most efforts to prevent lung cancer emphasize tobacco control because 80%–90% of lung cancers are attributed to cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke.
The rates of liver cancer in the United States more than doubled between 1990 and 2010 while deaths resulting from cirrhosis jumped 43 percent, the National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project (NATAP) reports.
Suicide is an increasing public health concern. In 2009, the number of deaths from suicide surpassed the number of deaths from motor vehicle crashes in the United States. Traditionally, suicide prevention efforts have been focused mostly on youths and older adults, but recent evidence suggests that there have been substantial increases in suicide rates among middle-aged adults in the United States.
From 2005 to 2009, the prevalence of self-reported hypertension among U.S. adults increased from 25.8% to 28.3%. Among those with self-reported hypertension, use of antihypertensive medications increased from 61.1% to 62.6%. Among states, rates of self-reported hypertension in 2009 ranged from 20.9% to 35.9%.
In 2012, a total of 9,951 new tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in the United States, an incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 population. This represents a decrease of 6.1% from the incidence reported in 2011 and is the 20th consecutive year of declining rates.
Cancer is a leading cause of illness and death in the United States, and many cancers are preventable. Surveillance of cancer incidence can help public health officials target areas for cancer control efforts and track progress toward the national cancer objectives set forth in Healthy People 2020. This report summarizes the most recent invasive cancer incidence rates by sex, age, race, ethnicity, primary site, and state of residence using data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2009.
During 2010–2011, women were more likely than men to often feel depressed (10.7% compared with 7.7%), overall and among those aged 18–44, 45–64, and 65–74 years. For both men (9.9%) and women (13.0%), the prevalence of depression was highest among those aged 45–64 years.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of progressive, debilitating respiratory conditions, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, characterized by difficulty breathing, lung airflow limitations, cough, and other symptoms. COPD often is associated with a history of cigarette smoking and is the primary contributor to mortality caused by chronic lower respiratory diseases, which became the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2008.
From 2000 to 2011, consumption of all combustible tobacco products decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6 (a 27.5% decrease), and per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374 (a 36.0% decrease). However, whereas consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8%, consumption of non-cigarette combustible tobacco increased 123.1%. As a result, the percentage of combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a chronic occupational lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of dust, which triggers inflammation of the alveoli, eventually resulting in irreversible lung damage. CWP ranges in severity from simple to advanced; the most severe form is progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Advanced CWP is debilitating and often fatal.
In 2007–2009, the asthma death rate in the United States was higher for blacks than whites overall and for each age group, except persons aged ≥75 years, for whom the difference was not statistically significant.
Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has a causal role in nearly all cervical cancers and in many vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. Most HPV infections clear within 1–2 years, but those that persist can progress to precancer or cancer.
Death rates from motor vehicle accidents progressively increase across the six urbanization levels, with the lowest rates in large central metropolitan counties and the highest rates in rural counties.
Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized ovum implants on any tissue other than the endometrial lining of the uterus. Approximately 1%–2% of pregnancies in the United States are ectopic; however, these pregnancies account for 3%–4% of pregnancy-related deaths.
Each year, approximately 350,000 persons are diagnosed with breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer in the United States, and nearly 100,000 die from these diseases. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening tests for each of these cancers to reduce morbidity and mortality.
This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality for 2010 by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin.
Binge drinking accounts for more than half of the estimated 80,000 average annual deaths and three quarters of $223.5 billion in economic costs resulting from excessive alcohol consumption in the United States.
From 1999 to 2008, the suicide death rate for persons aged 45–64 years increased overall (from 13.2 to 17.6 per 100,000 population) and for white men (from 22.6 to 30.7) and white women (from 6.7 to 9.4), whereas the rate did not change significantly for black men and women.
The 10 leading causes of death in the United States were the same in 2008 and 2009. The rankings also remained the same. The preliminary age-adjusted death rate for the leading cause of death, diseases of heart, decreased by 3.6%. The age-adjusted death rate for malignant neoplasms decreased by 1.0%. Deaths from these two diseases combined accounted for 48% of deaths in the United States in 2009.
Quitting smoking is beneficial to health at any age, and cigarette smokers who quit before age 35 years have mortality rates similar to those who never smoked. From 1965 to 2010, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States decreased from 42.4% to 19.3%, in part because of an increase in the number who quit smoking. Since 2002, the number of former U.S. smokers has exceeded the number of current smokers.
Age-adjusted mortality rates for coronary heart disease (CHD) have declined steadily in the United States since the 1960s. Multiple factors likely have contributed to this decline in CHD deaths, including greater control of risk factors, resulting in declining incidence of CHD, and improved treatment.
In 2009, Hispanic adults (16.2%) were less likely to have been told by a doctor or other health-care professional that they had some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia compared with non-Hispanic white adults (23.6%) and non-Hispanic black adults (23.2%). Puerto Rican adults (27.4%) were more likely to have arthritis or a related condition than were other Hispanic subgroups.
Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. The health consequences of tobacco use include heart disease, multiple types of cancer, pulmonary disease, adverse reproductive effects, and the exacerbation of chronic health conditions.
To identify occupational safety issues affecting older workers, an analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) was conducted by CDC, BLS, and several state partners. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, based on employer reports, an estimated 210,830 nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among older workers in 2009 resulted in lost workdays.
To assess obesity prevalence among adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for the period 2003--2009. This report summarizes the results of that analysis.
National Health Interview Survey, 2009 data. Estimates are based on household interviews of a sample of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Estimates are age adjusted using the projected 2000 U.S. standard population as the standard population and using four age groups: 18--44 years, 45--64 years, 65--74 years, and ≥75 years.
CRC screening data are reported using information from 2002--2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. State-specific CRC incidence and mortality data were drawn from the United States Cancer Statistics. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in incidence and death rates from 2003 to 2007 were calculated by state.
During 1999--2009, age-adjusted death rates for heart disease and cancer declined significantly by 30.8% and 11.9%, respectively. The death rate for heart disease decreased at a faster pace than the cancer death rate during that period. The risk for death from heart disease was 31.9% higher than from cancer in 1999, whereas it was 3.6% higher from heart disease than from cancer in 2009.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2005--2008. During 2005--2008, among U.S. adults aged 20--64 years with hypertension, 40% of those with no health insurance had hypertension that was undiagnosed, compared with 21% of those with private insurance and 16% of those with public insurance. In the 20--39 years and 40--64 years age groups, undiagnosed hypertension also was more common among persons with no health insurance compared with those with private or public insurance.
Life expectancy at birth increased gradually for white and black males and females from 2000 through 2009. During this period, life expectancy increased most for black males (2.7 years) and black females (2.3 years) but also for white males (1.5 years) and white females (1.0 years). Life expectancy reached a record high for white males and white females in 2009; for black males and black females, it remained unchanged from 2008 to 2009. In 2009, white females had the longest life expectancy (80.9 years), followed by black females (77.4 years), white males (76.2 years), and black males (70.9 years).
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Approximately 53,000 persons die from TBI-related injuries annually. During 1989--1998, TBI-related death rates decreased 11.4%, from 21.9 to 19.4 per 100,000 population. This report describes the epidemiology and annual rates of TBI-related deaths during 1997--2007. Data were analyzed from the CDC multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files, which contain death certificate data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Annual data for 2003--2008 on occupational fatalities resulting from traumatic injuries were obtained from CFOI, a national surveillance system for work-related traumatic injury deaths maintained by BLS. Occupations in CFOI were classified using the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system.
To assess the prevalence of short sleep duration (<7 hours on weekday or workday nights) and its perceived effect on daily activities, CDC analyzed data from the 2005--2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This report summarizes the results, which found that 37.1% of U.S. adults reported regularly sleeping <7 hours per night, similar to the 35.3% reporting <7 hours of sleep in a 24-hour period in another report using self-reported data.
To assess the prevalence and distribution of selected sleep difficulties and behaviors, CDC analyzed data from a new sleep module added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2009. This report summarizes the results of that analysis.
CDC analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) on the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years. Hypertension was defined as an average blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or the current use of blood pressure--lowering medication.
CDC analyzed data from 1999--2002 and 2005--2008 to examine the prevalence, treatment, and control of high LDL-C among U.S. adults aged ≥20 years. Values were determined from blood specimens obtained from persons participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative cross-sectional, stratified, multistage probability sample survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population.
To estimate disparities in rates of use of colorectal cancer tests and evaluate changes in test use, CDC compared data from the 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. BRFSS is a state-based, random-digit--dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized, U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years. Survey data were available for all 50 states (except for Hawaii in 2004) and the District of Columbia.
To determine differences in the prevalence of suicide by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and geographic region in the United States, CDC analyzed 1999--2007 data from the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System --- Fatal (WISQARS Fatal) and the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Mortality data originate from NVSS, which collects death certificate data filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data in this report were based on suicides from any cause and include the 1999--2007 data years. The WISQARS database contains mortality data based on NVSS and population counts for all U.S. counties based on U.S. Census data. Counts and rates of death can be obtained by underlying cause of death, mechanism of injury, state, county, age, race, sex, year, injury cause of death (e.g., firearm, poisoning, or suffocation) and by manner of death (e.g., suicide, homicide, or unintentional injury).
In the United States, childhood obesity affects approximately 12.5 million children and teens (17% of that population) . Changes in obesity prevalence from the 1960s show a rapid increase in the 1980s and 1990s, when obesity prevalence among children and teens tripled, from nearly 5% to approximately 15%. During the past 10 years, the rapid increase in obesity has slowed and might have leveled. However, among the heaviest boys, a significant increase in obesity has been observed, with the heaviest getting even heavier. Moreover, substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist, with Hispanic boys and non-Hispanic black girls disproportionately affected by obesity. Also, older children and teens are more likely to be obese compared with preschoolers.
The average daily kilocalorie intake for men increased from the survey period 1971--1974 to 1988--1994 and then leveled off through 2007--2008. For women, the average daily kilocalorie intake increased from 1971--1974 to 1999--2000 and remained relatively stable through 2007--2008. From 1971--1974 to 2007--2008, men consumed more kilocalories on a daily basis than women.
CDC used 2001--2009 data from the National Health Interview Survey to estimate percentages of persons aged 18--64 years who reported ever being tested for HIV in the United States. Data from the National HIV Surveillance System were used to estimate numbers, percentages, and rates of HIV diagnoses, AIDS diagnoses, and late diagnoses of HIV infection (defined as an AIDS diagnosis made ≤12 months from an initial HIV diagnosis) for persons diagnosed with HIV infection during 2001--2008 and reported to CDC through June 2009; these were used to determine populations and regions most affected by HIV and AIDS, late diagnoses, and trends in late diagnoses over time.
Welcome improvements in many areas of America’s health status are offset by continuing declines in others, according to the 2010 America’s Heath Rankings®. The nation’s overall health improved one percentage point last year, but reductions in smoking, preventable hospitalizations and infectious disease were offset by continued increases in obesity, children in poverty, and lack of health insurance. The report also shows a 19 percent increase since the 2005 Edition in the percentage of adults who had been diagnosed with diabetes.
Chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and stroke) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Data on health risk behaviors that increase the risk for chronic diseases and use of preventive practices are essential for the development, implementation, and evaluation of health promotion programs, policies, and intervention strategies to decrease or prevent the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Surveillance data from states and territories, selected metropolitan and micropolitan areas, and counties are vital components of these various prevention and intervention strategies.
The health consequences of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use both have been well documented, including increased risk for lung, throat, oral, and other types of cancers (1,2). To assess state-specific current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence (range: 6.4% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)] to 25.6% [Kentucky and West Virginia]) and smokeless tobacco use (range: 0.8% [USVI] to 9.1% [Wyoming]). For 15 of the states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, smoking prevalence was significantly higher among men than among women.
To calculate the estimated lifetime risk (ELR) and age-conditional risk for diagnosis of HIV infection among Hispanics/Latinos in 37 states and Puerto Rico, CDC analyzed HIV surveillance data, vital statistics data on general and HIV-specific mortality, and U.S. census data from 2007. The results of those analyses indicated that an estimated 1.92% (one in 52) of Hispanics/Latinos would receive HIV diagnoses during their lifetimes, compared with an ELR for HIV diagnosis of 0.59% (one in 170) for whites and 4.65% (one in 22) for blacks/African Americans. Among Hispanics/Latinos, those aged 35 years had the greatest risk for HIV diagnosis (males: 0.77% and females: 0.24%) during the next 10 years. Reducing HIV risk behaviors and increasing access to testing and care are important to decrease the number of diagnoses of HIV infection among disproportionately affected population groups.
The 2009 National Health Interview Survey and the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate national and state adult smoking prevalence, respectively. Cigarette smokers were defined as adults aged ≥18 years who reported having smoked ≥100 cigarettes in their lifetime and now smoke every day or some days.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999--2008 were analyzed to determine the proportion of the nonsmoking population with serum cotinine (the primary nicotine metabolite) levels ≥0.05 ng/mL, by age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income level, and to determine whether the household included a person who smoked inside the home.
The objective of this report is to compare the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes among three racial/ethnic groups and the prevalence of co-morbidity of these conditions for U.S. adults.
To estimate the prevalence of any tobacco and polytobacco use, CDC analyzed data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (the most recent data available) module on use of other tobacco products, which was implemented by 13 states.
During 2007--2010, CDC expanded surveillance of commercial fishing fatalities to the rest of the country's fishing areas. To review the hazards and risk factors for occupational mortality in the U.S. commercial fishing industry, and to explore how hazards and risk factors differ among fisheries and locations, CDC collected and analyzed data on each fatality reported during 2000--2009. This report summarizes the results.
Every 2 years, CDC uses Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to estimate up-to-date CRC screening prevalence in the United States. Adults aged ≥50 years were considered to be up-to-date with CRC screening if they reported having a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within the past year or lower endoscopy (i.e., sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) within the preceding 10 years. Prevalence was calculated for adults aged 50--75 years based on current U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations.
Every 2 years, CDC uses Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to estimate mammography prevalence in the United States. Up-to-date mammography prevalence is calculated for women aged 50--74 years who report they had the test in the preceding 2 years.
Rates of overdose deaths involving prescription drugs increased rapidly in the United States during 1999--2006 (1). However, such mortality data do not portray the morbidity associated with prescription drug overdoses. Data from emergency department (ED) visits can represent this morbidity and can be accessed more quickly than mortality data. To better understand recent national trends in drug-related morbidity, CDC and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reviewed the most recent 5 years of available data (2004--2008) on ED visits involving the nonmedical use of prescription drugs from SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). This report describes the results of that review, which showed that the estimated number of ED visits for nonmedical use of opioid analgesics increased 111% during 2004--2008 (from 144,600 to 305,900 visits) and increased 29% during 2007--2008.”
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2008
Adults aged 20 and over with depression were more likely to be cigarette smokers than those without depression.
Women with depression had smoking rates similar to men with depression, while women without depression smoked less than men.
The percentage of adults who were smokers increased as depression severity increased.
Among adult smokers, those with depression smoked more heavily than those without depression. They were more likely to smoke their first cigarette within 5 minutes of awakening and to smoke more than one pack of cigarettes per day.
Adults with depression were less likely to quit smoking than those without depression.
This report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention considers healthy limits for adult sodium consumption, the extent to which American adults fall within these limits and the primary sources of sodium consumption in the typical American diet.
Approximately 57.2 million people under the age of 65—more than one in five (22.4 percent) of America’s non-elderly population—have a diagnosed pre-existing condition that could lead to a denial of coverage in the individual health insurance market, according to a report released today by the consumer health organization Families USA.
During 2007--2008, men had a higher prevalence of class I obesity (21.5%) than women (17.8%). However, women had a higher prevalence of class II (10.5%) and class III (7.2%) obesity then men (6.5% and 4.2%). The prevalence of class I obesity significantly increased with age in men, but not in women. The prevalence of class II and class III obesity did not differ significantly by age for either men or women.
Liver cancer, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States (1,2). Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for an estimated 78% of global HCC cases (3). To determine trends in HCC incidence in the United States, CDC analyzed data for the period 2001--2006 (the most recent data available) from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) surveillance system. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which determined that the average annual incidence rate of HCC for 2001--2006 was 3.0 per 100,000 persons and increased significantly from 2.7 per 100,000 persons in 2001 to 3.2 in 2006, with an average annual percentage change in incidence rate (APC) of 3.5%.
Sensory impairments such as problems with vision, hearing, postural balance, or loss of feeling in the feet, are known to increase with age. The prevalence of sensory impairments will increase as US life expectancy increases. Important public health goals for older adults include maintaining independent living, health, and quality of life (1). Minimizing the impact of sensory impairments is therefore important. This report provides updated examination-based estimates for sensory impairments: overall and for specific subgroups of older Americans.
An estimated 1.7 million deaths, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) occur in the United States each year, according to a report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The percentage of adults with selected unhealthy behavior characteristics varied by race during 2005--2007. Asian adults had the lowest prevalence rate of consuming five or more drinks in a single day, currently smoking cigarettes, and obesity. Black adults had the highest prevalence rate of physical inactivity and one of the lowest prevalence rates of consuming five or more drinks in a single day. American Indian/Alaska Native adults were most likely to be current cigarette smokers compared with other racial groups. Overall, physical inactivity was the most prevalent unhealthy behavior.
In 2007, the mortality rate was lowest for the Asian/Pacific Islander female population and highest for the non-Hispanic black male population. For each racial/ethnic group, the death rate was substantially lower for females compared with males.
The older population is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse as the overall minority population grows and experiences great longevity. In fact, the percentage of older persons, which was 16 percent of the older population in 2000, is expected to grow to 24 percent by 2020. This section provides information on minority elders in the United States.
Roll over the Genworth Financial interactive map to compare your state or region's median cost of care to other areas in the country. Click a state or region to view and calculate current and projected long term care costs. Scroll down the page to learn more about Cost of Care and the methodology used for the Genworth 2010 Cost of Care Survey.
Eliminating health disparities among different segments of the population is one of two overarching goals of both Healthy People 2010 and 2020 (1). Race/ethnicity differences in health care and chronic diseases have been well documented (2,3). Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes are all chronic conditions associated with cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. The co-occurrence of these three chronic conditions by race/ethnicity has been less frequently documented. In addition, reliance on only self-reported diagnosis results in an underestimate of the prevalence of these conditions. The objective of this report is to compare the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes among three racial/ethnic groups and the prevalence of co-morbidity of these conditions for U.S. adults.
ATS data indicate that during 2003--2007, 13.3%--25.4% of adults smoked cigarettes (median: 19.2%); fewer adults smoked cigars (median: 6.4%) or used smokeless tobacco (median: 3.5%). The majority of tobacco users used one tobacco product (median: 82.5%). In most states, approximately half of cigarette smokers reported that they would try to quit in the next 6 months (median: 58.4%), and approximately half made an attempt to quit in the preceding year (median: 46.8%). The majority of adults (i.e., smokers and nonsmokers combined) reported that smoking should not be allowed at all in workplaces (median: 77.6%), restaurants (median: 65.5%), public buildings (median: 72.5%), or indoor sporting events/concerts (median: 72.1%). One third of adults reported smoking should not be allowed at all in cocktail lounges or bars (median: 33.1%). The percentage of adults who reported having smoke-free policies at work or home ranged from 51.2% to 75.2% (median: 61.7%).
An estimated 1.7 million deaths, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) occur in the United States each year, according to a report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The report, “Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Death,” is based on data from 2002-2006 and identifies the leading causes of TBI and incidence by age, race, and gender.
During 2004--2008, 7.6% of adults overall in the United States reported ever having been told they had diabetes. American Indian/Alaska Natives (17.5%), blacks (11.8%), and Hispanics (10.6%) were more likely than Asians (8.0%) and whites (6.6%) to report ever having been told by a doctor or health professional that they had diabetes.
In 2006, nearly one third of all injury deaths involved TBI. Overall injury and TBI-related death rates vary across age groups. Peak injury and TBI-related mortality rates occurred among persons aged 20--24 years (76.9 per 100,000 and 24.1 per 100,000, respectively) and among persons aged ≥75 years (173.2 per 100,000 and 58.4 per 100,000, respectively).
During 2004-08, 20.5% of adults aged ≥18 years were current cigarette smokers. American Indian /Alaska Native adults (32.7%) were most likely to currently smoke cigarettes, and Asian adults (10.4%) were least likely to be current smokers.
During 2004--2007, an average of 15.7 million injuries were reported per year among employed persons. Half of these injuries resulted in time lost from work: 8% resulted in <1 day of time lost, 26% resulted in 1--5 days lost, and 16% resulted in ≥6 days lost. An average of 8.7 million injuries were reported per year among persons who attended school. Approximately one third of these injuries resulted in time lost from school: 9% resulted in <1 day of time lost, 22% resulted in 1--5 days lost, and 3% resulted in ≥6 days lost.
During 2004--2007, an average of 33.5 million injuries were reported each year. Among females, 54% of injuries occurred inside or outside of the home, compared with 42% of injuries among males. Injuries among males were more likely to occur in recreation areas (17%) and commercial areas (13%) than injuries among females.
During 2004--2007, falls were the leading cause of injury, accounting for nearly 40% of all injuries and more than twice as many injuries as any other cause. Falls were the leading cause for both males and females, but the age-adjusted injury rate for falls was 17% higher among females than males. In contrast, the age-adjusted injury rate for being struck was 35% lower among females than males, and the injury rate for being cut or pierced was 50% lower among females than males.
A series of publications provide a history of the generations born since the early 1900s. The profiles provide a snapshot of four generations. They look at demographics and, perhaps more importantly, the events occurring during their teen and young adult years that influenced their values and their viewpoints.
To examine the prevalence of insufficient rest or sleep in all states, CDC analyzed BRFSS data for all 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and three U.S. territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands) in 2008. This report summarizes the results, which showed that among 403,981 respondents, 30.7% reported no days of insufficient rest or sleep and 11.1% reported insufficient rest or sleep every day during the preceding 30 days.
During 2003-07, among adults aged ≥65 years, the poorest (<100% of the poverty threshold) were approximately twice as likely to need help with ADLs as the least poor (≥300% of the poverty threshold). Older adults were more likely to have 3-6 ADLs than 1-2 ADLs, except for the poorest group where the difference was not statistically significant.
JHA, a division of Gen Re LifeHealth, is pleased to release the results of the 2009 U.S. Group Life and Group Disability Mid-Year Market Surveys. These leading industry benchmark surveys cover Group Term Life (Basic Term Life and Voluntary Term Life), Short Term Disability (STD) and Long Term Disability (LTD) sales and earned premium for the first half of the year.
The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) was initiated in 1987 and is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected maternal behaviors and experiences that occur before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants in the United States.
To update 2006 state-specific estimates of cigarette smoking, CDC analyzed data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and examined trends in cigarette smoking from 1998--2007. Results of these analyses indicated substantial variation in current cigarette smoking during 2007.
CDC and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have combined their cancer incidence data to produce United States Cancer Statistics (USCS): 1999--2005 Incidence and Mortality Data, a web-based report. The report is produced in collaboration with the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries.
To characterize trends in premature mortality attributed to asbestosis in the United States, CDC analyzed annual underlying cause-of-death data for 1968-2005, the most recent years for which data were available. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that annual years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL) attributed to asbestosis increased 64%, from an average of 146.0 YPLL per year during 1968--1972 to 239.6 per year during 2001-2005 (regression trend for the 5-year moving average, p<0.001), for an overall total of 7,267 YPLL (mean per decedent: 6.2) over the entire period. These results demonstrate that asbestosis-attributable YPLL continue to occur and that efforts to prevent, track, and eliminate asbestosis need to be maintained.
The percentage of adults aged >25 years whose health was reported as excellent or very good increased with increased levels of education. Persons with a bachelor's degree or higher (73.1%) were nearly twice as likely to be reported as being in excellent or very good health as persons with less than a high school diploma (37.9%). Persons with less than a high school diploma were most likely to be reported as being in fair or poor health.